Guide Dog FAQ
- What dog breeds are used as guides?
- The dog breeds that various schools train as guides are: Boxers, Doberman
Pinschers, German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, Goldadors (cross between the
Golden Retriever and Labrador), the Hungarian Vizsla, Labrador Retrievers,
Labradoodles (cross between the Labrador and a Standard Poodle), Smooth Coated
Collies, and the Standard Poodle. The Labrador Retriever is the dog most often
used as a guide in programs throughout the world.
- How much does it cost to train a guide dog?
- The actual cost involved in breeding, raising, training, and placing a guide
dog with a blind or visually impaired person differs from school to school but
generally falls within the rage of $26,000 - $40,000 per dog. Guide dog schools
are non-profit organizations and rely solely upon donations.
- Do you have to be totally blind to get a guide dog?
- No. Many schools today recognize the benefits a guide dog offers to those who
have low vision. However, in order to qualify, an applicant must be legally
blind--no more than 20/200 vision in their better eye with standard correction or
a visual field of no more than 20 degrees in their better eye. A few schools are
more selective, based on the degree of functional vision a person has remaining.
But everyone who qualifies must be legally blind and have a need for the dog as
a mobility aid.
- What is the average working life of a guide dog?
- The average working life of a guide dog is six to ten years. At that point,
they may be ready to retire and be just a pet.
- Are guide dogs really as smart as they seem?
- The amazing work that guide dogs do is the result of countless hours of
painstaking practice and unending patience. The guide dog schools that have
their own breeding programs strive for two main characteristics: intelligence
and willingness to please. Guide dogs have been bred to be intelligent, but they
have also received intensive and specialized training.
- Will a guide dog mess up the floor?
- No. Guide dogs are taught not to relieve themselves inside or while they are
wearing the harness. Most guides are kept on a strict relief schedule and most
handlers will relieve their dogs before entering a location where they may be
inside for a long time. The only reason a guide dog should ever have an accident
would be if they were sick and could not help themselves.
- Is a guide dog allowed on the furniture?
- Guide dogs are taught not to get on furniture and most schools encourage
their students to maintain that rule. But once a student completes the training
and returns home, it is a matter of personal choice to permit their dog on the
furniture or not. Regardless, a guide dog should always obey their handler's
command to get off.
- Is a guide dog treated like a pet at home?
- Yes and no. Guide dogs and their handlers are together 24 hours a day, seven
days a week. The bond of love and mutual dependency that develops between dog
and handler is unlike anything most people experience with their pets. Although
a guide dog is a highly trained service animal, they are still a dog and they
need to be loved and petted. Many guide dog owners will tell you that their dog
is their best friend. But if you allow a dog to break the rules at home, they
will break them elsewhere too. A certain level of discipline must be maintained
or their guide work may suffer. So, while a guide dog is treated as a pet in
many respects, they are also a working dog and must be held to appropriate
standards of behavior.
- How does a guide dog know where to go?
- Guide dogs are trained to move forward in a straight line, turn right or
left, and follow a sidewalk or path as it curves around. The handler must know
how to get to their destination before they can tell the dog how to do it.
Although they are trained to follow a straight line to its end and then wait for
the handler's next command, most dogs will learn the routes they walk
frequently. Once they have learned a route, the handler no longer needs to tell
them each turn along the way. Some dogs will even learn to associate a route
with a word such as store, bank, or home. However, in unfamiliar territory, the
handler will need to give the dog explicit commands at each turn along the way
to their destination.
- How does a guide dog know when to cross the street?
- A guide dog cannot read traffic lights or walk signs. Their blind or visually
impaired handler must listen to the sounds of the traffic and decide when it is
safe to cross. The dog serves as a safety net. If the handler makes a mistake or
misjudges the traffic, the dog should refuse the command to move forward.
However, once they are in the intersection, the dog should guide their handler
safely to the opposite side. Cars turning a corner can be especially hazardous.
There have been many instances when a guide dog has physically pulled their
handler out of the street and out of harm's way.
- How does a guide dog know when to get off the elevator?
- A guide dog cannot read floor numbers. Their handler must tell them when to
exit the elevator. A totally blind person might count the "dings" while a
partially sighted person might have enough vision to read the display. In either
case, the dog depends upon the handler to know when to get off.
- Can a guide dog go on an escalator?
- Yes. Most guide dogs are trained to ride escalators. The important thing to
remember when working a dog on an escalator is to get them moving before the
steps flatten out so that they do not get their feet or nails caught in the
- Can guide dogs go into stores and restaurants?
- Yes. A blind person accompanied by a guide dog has the right to go anywhere
the general public is allowed. This includes restaurants, medical centers,
stores of all kinds, taxicabs, airplanes, etc. These rights are guaranteed by
federal and state laws.
- Does a guide dog ever disobey?
- Guide dogs are not robots, they are dogs and they do make mistakes. New guide
dog users go through a training program where they learn how to correct the dog
and maintain the dog's training. There are times, however, when it is desirable
for the dog to disobey. Most guide dogs are trained to refuse a command when
that command would lead to danger--walking out into traffic or over the edge of a
drop-off, for example. This concept is known as "intelligent disobedience." A
handler must read their dog well enough to know when a refusal to obey signals
danger and trust their dog enough to follow where they lead.
- I saw someone jerk their dog's leash. Are they abusing their guide dog?
- No, they are giving their dog a leash correction. Guide dogs sometimes make
mistakes. They may be distracted or they may simply be testing their limits. In
either case, failure to correct an undesirable behavior only teaches the dog
that the behavior is acceptable. A verbal correction is usually sufficient. But
if the dog is not paying attention or their behavior could compromise the safety
of the team, a leash correction may be needed. Running a curb, for example, is
serious business. It can get both dog and handler killed. A proper leash
correction doesn't hurt the dog in any way and, when combined with a firm "no,"
it will get their attention. When the dog stops the behavior or performs the
task correctly, they should be given lots of warm praise. A leash correction
looks far worse than it is. Guide dog schools get calls everyday from
well-meaning people who confuse a proper leash correction with abuse. It is not.
However, a handler should never hit, kick, or choke their dog. That type of
behavior is definitely abuse and should be reported.
- Will a guide dog bite?
- No. Guide dog schools are extremely careful in their screening procedures.
Any show of aggressive behavior and the dog is dropped from the program or
career changed into another field. Guide dogs are socialized from birth to be
gentle and loving towards people and well-behaved around other animals.
- Can I pet your guide dog?
- You should always ask permission before petting a guide dog. Whether walking
down the street or waiting in line at the supermarket, while "in-harness" the
dog is on duty and it is likely that the handler will not allow petting. There's
a very good reason for the "no petting in-harness" rule: the safety of the guide
dog team depends upon the dog's ability to ignore distractions and focus on
their work. Petting "in-harness" teaches the dog that interacting with people
while they are working is acceptable. A dog that is used to being petted
"in-harness" could easily become distracted and lead their handler into traffic
or drag them down a flight of stairs in their attempt to get to someone they
know. While the harness is on, a guide dog must focus on their work. But
"out-of-harness" they are an ordinary dog that needs to run, play, and be
petted. Guide dogs know the difference between what is expected of them
"in-harness" and "out-of-harness." It's very important to keep those two worlds
separate. Most handlers will allow petting "out-of-harness" as long as it
doesn't negatively affect their dog's guide work. It is up to the individual
handler to know their dog's personality and decide whether or not to allow
others to pet their guide.
- Can I feed your dog?
- A guide dog must be well behaved in public where food is being served.
Begging or stealing food is totally unacceptable. One of the reasons why guide
dogs are so well mannered in restaurants and other eating establishments is
because they are never given human food. They know they can't have it and so
they don't expect it. Besides, much of the food we eat is not good for dogs. For
these reasons, guide dogs are kept on a strict diet of high quality dog food
that is designed to meet their nutritional needs and people food is not allowed.
- Can I talk to a guide dog while they are working?
- No. Distracting a guide dog while they are working can be dangerous for both
the dog and their handler. Some people whistle to get the dog's attention.
That's like taking the steering wheel away from someone while they are
driving--it's not a good idea.
- How do I give directions to a guide dog team?
- Incredible as it may seem, some people give their directions to the dog!
Guide dogs understand the commands they have been trained to understand. They do
not know language in the way that we do. So, unless you can speak canine, please
give your directions to the handler and not the dog.
DISCLAIMER: Links on the Florida Division of Blind Services (DBS) website that are directed toward websites outside the DBS, provide additional information that may be useful or interesting and are being provided consistent with the intended purpose of the DBS website. DBS cannot attest to the accuracy of information provided by non-DBS websites. Further, providing links to a non-DBS website does not constitute an endorsement by DBS, the Florida Department of Education or any of its employees, of the sponsors of the non-DBS website or of the information or products presented on the non-DBS website.